How to Breed Pigeon?

The age-old hobby of pigeon breeding presents a blend of art and science that captivates people worldwide. Pigeons, being among the most diverse bird species on earth, have a plethora of distinct breeds, each with unique characteristics. Breeding these intriguing creatures can be fulfilling, whether it’s for leisure, sport, or scientific research.

Breeding pigeons is an intricate process involving careful selection of breeds, setting up suitable environments, understanding mating behavior, and looking after eggs and chicks. It requires commitment, patience, and a detailed understanding of pigeon biology.

Furthermore, advanced pigeon breeders dive into genetic implications of pigeon breeding, crossing different breeds for desired traits and improving performance in racing pigeons. These enriching aspects make pigeon breeding not only a hobby but also an avenue for learning and discovery.

Preliminary Steps for Pigeon Breeding

Selection of Right Breed

As a pigeon breeder, my initial task is to decide which pigeon breed to work with. Pigeons come in a variety of sizes, shapes, colors, and show traits. From the fancy Frillbacks with their curly feathers to the speed-oriented Racing Homers, the right choice depends on what I aim to achieve from my pigeon breeding journey.

Creating Suitable Environment

Types of Pigeon Lofts

Once the breed is decided, my next step is to create a conducive environment for the pigeons. This typically involves building a pigeon loft, which serves as a home for the birds. The size and design of the loft depend on the number of pigeons, the breed, and whether they are racing pigeons or show pigeons.

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Necessity of Loft Ventilation

One crucial aspect of loft design is ventilation. Poorly ventilated lofts can lead to respiratory problems in pigeons, affecting their overall health and breeding capability.

Pigeon Diet Requirements

A balanced diet is key to the pigeons’ health and reproductive success. Seeds, grains, vegetables, and mineral supplements are a part of my pigeons’ diet to provide them with all necessary nutrients.

Wood pigeons

Pigeon Mating Process

Recognizing Pigeon Mating Signs

As an experienced breeder, I’ve learned to identify the subtle signs pigeons display when they’re ready to mate. The male pigeon, or cock, starts to court the female, or hen, by cooing in a particular way, fluffing up his plumage, and making repeated bowing movements. He may also feed the hen, which is called “billing,” and it often signals the start of the mating process. Recognizing these behaviors is critical for breeders because it indicates the ideal time for pairing up suitable mates.

Encouraging Pigeon Pairing

Introducing Pigeons to Each Other

Introducing potential pairs to each other is an essential part of the pigeon breeding process. This must be done gradually and carefully, as forced pairings can lead to stress and unsuccessful mating attempts. I usually start by placing prospective mates in adjacent compartments where they can interact without physical contact. Gradually, I let them spend time together under supervision until they show signs of acceptance and compatibility. This patient approach can be time-consuming but is worth the successful bond it promotes.

Dealing with Pigeon Mating Issues

Not all pigeon pairings proceed smoothly. As a breeder, I have faced scenarios where pigeons fail to bond, become aggressive, or show disinterest. In such cases, I’ve learned to intervene with sensitivity. Sometimes, a change of environment, diet modification, or introduction to a new potential mate can resolve the issue. Patience and observation are key in this process.

Pigeon Egg Incubation

Understanding the Incubation Period

The incubation period is a significant phase in the pigeon breeding cycle. After the hen lays eggs, typically one or two, the process of incubation begins, lasting approximately 17 to 19 days. During this time, I keep a close eye on the nest, monitoring the pigeon parents as they take turns warming the eggs. This phase requires minimal intervention, but vigilance is necessary to ensure everything is progressing as expected.

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Role of Parent Pigeons in Incubation

It’s interesting to note that both the male and female pigeon share the responsibility of incubating the eggs. While the hen incubates the eggs during the night and part of the day, the cock takes over for the remainder of the day. This shared duty helps maintain the eggs at an optimal temperature, enhancing the chance of successful hatching.

Handling of Unattended Eggs

Sometimes, parent pigeons might leave the eggs unattended, especially in the case of first-time parents or if they’re disturbed. In such cases, I ensure that the eggs are kept warm to continue the development process. There are various methods breeders use, like incubators or foster pigeon parents, but it’s important to interfere as little as possible and let nature take its course.

Pigeon Chick Care

Initial Days of Pigeon Chicks

The initial days following the hatching of the eggs are crucial. The newly hatched pigeons, known as squabs, are entirely dependent on their parents for food and warmth. As a breeder, I ensure that the parent pigeons are well-fed and undisturbed, allowing them to care for their squabs effectively.

Pigeon Chicks Feeding

Pigeon parents feed their chicks a nutrient-rich substance called ‘crop milk.’ As a breeder, I need to ensure that the parent pigeons have enough nutrition in their diet to produce this essential food for their squabs. If the parent pigeons cannot or do not feed the squabs, I may need to step in and feed them a commercial crop milk substitute using a syringe or tube feeder.

Growth Milestones of Pigeon Chicks

Observing the growth milestones of pigeon chicks is a fulfilling part of pigeon breeding. From the moment the squabs break out of their shells to when they take their first flight, every stage of growth offers a unique learning experience. Monitoring these milestones also helps me ensure that the chicks are growing healthily and on schedule.

Common Health Issues in Pigeon Chicks

Despite providing optimal care and conditions, pigeon chicks can sometimes face health issues. As a breeder, I’ve encountered conditions like canker, coccidiosis, and worm infestation. To handle these, I’ve equipped myself with basic veterinary skills and knowledge. However, I always consult with a qualified avian veterinarian for any serious health concerns. Preventive measures like maintaining hygiene, providing balanced nutrition, and regular health checks can go a long way in ensuring the wellbeing of the chicks.

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Advanced Aspects of Pigeon Breeding

Role of Genetics in Pigeon Breeding

Once comfortable with the basics of pigeon breeding, I found myself drawn to the more complex aspects of this hobby. The genetics of pigeon breeding is one such fascinating area. Understanding genetics allows breeders to predict the traits of offspring, helping in the selection of parent pigeons for desired outcomes.

Cross Breeding in Pigeons

Cross-breeding is another advanced technique in pigeon breeding. This involves mating two different breeds to produce a hybrid that possesses traits from both parents. It’s a trial-and-error process, and the results can be unpredictable, yet it’s exciting to see the outcome of these experiments.

Selective Breeding for Performance

For breeders interested in racing or show pigeons, selective breeding becomes essential. By selectively pairing pigeons based on their performance or specific traits, breeders aim to produce offspring that excel in those particular areas. This selective breeding process has been instrumental in creating champion racing pigeons and stunning show pigeons.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take for pigeon eggs to hatch?

Typically, pigeon eggs hatch after an incubation period of 17 to 19 days. Both the male and female pigeon share the task of incubating the eggs.

How can I encourage my pigeons to mate?

Encouraging pigeons to mate involves creating a conducive environment for them, ensuring they have a balanced diet, and allowing them to choose their mate. Gradually introducing prospective mates to each other can also encourage successful pairing.

How many eggs do pigeons lay?

Most pigeon breeds lay two eggs per breeding cycle. However, this can vary depending on the health, age, and breed of the pigeon.


Breeding pigeons offers a captivating blend of biology, genetics, patience, and the joy of witnessing the cycle of life. As a pigeon breeder, I’ve found that understanding and respecting these creatures’ needs and behaviors are crucial to successful breeding.

It’s also important to remember that as a breeder, one carries the responsibility for the wellbeing of these birds. Ethical breeding practices, including providing appropriate care, not overbreeding, and prioritizing the pigeons’ health, are essential to ensure a rewarding and respectful breeding experience.

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