How Long Do Pigeon Eggs Take to Hatch?

The fascinating world of birds offers myriad marvels, one of which is the process of reproduction in pigeons. These city-dwelling creatures, commonly found cooing on our window sills, possess intriguing reproductive behaviors that echo patterns found in nature.

Pigeons, like other birds, lay eggs which then go through an incubation period before hatching. The process, duration, and even the appearance of the eggs can vary, offering an intriguing glance into the world of avian reproduction. The hatching period of pigeon eggs is typically around 18 days, although this can fluctuate slightly based on various factors.

Having a deeper understanding of pigeon reproduction, particularly the hatching process of their eggs, can enrich our appreciation of these birds. Knowledge about the cycle of life, from the laying of eggs to their eventual hatching, sheds light on the resilience and adaptability of pigeons, particularly within urban environments.

Understanding Pigeon Eggs

Physical Characteristics of Pigeon Eggs

Pigeon eggs are small, slightly elliptical orbs, typically measuring around 1.1 to 1.5 inches in length. They have a smooth, chalky surface and are usually white, though slight variations in color can occur.

The Clutch Size of Pigeons

In pigeon terms, a clutch refers to the number of eggs laid in one go. Most commonly, pigeons lay two eggs per clutch. This is a relatively small clutch size compared to other bird species, but it’s perfectly suited to the pigeon’s lifestyle and nesting habits.

Incubation Period for Pigeon Eggs

Timeline of Pigeon Egg Incubation

The incubation period of pigeon eggs is an essential part of their reproductive cycle. On average, it lasts around 18 days, beginning from the day the second egg of the clutch is laid. This period may vary by a day or two, depending on several factors that we will explore later.

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Pigeon parents usually wait until the second egg is laid before they start full incubation. This careful timing strategy ensures that both eggs hatch around the same time, giving each chick an equal start in life. During this period, the parent pigeons take turns to keep the eggs warm and protect them from potential threats.

Role of Male and Female Pigeons in Incubation

Pigeons exhibit a unique co-parenting approach when it comes to incubation. Unlike many bird species where the female primarily incubates the eggs, pigeon pairs share this responsibility equally.

The male pigeon incubates the eggs during the day, from morning till afternoon. As evening approaches, the female takes over the incubation shift, staying with the eggs through the night. This shared duty allows both parent pigeons to feed and rest, ensuring they stay healthy and can provide optimal care for their eggs.

Pigeon's eggs in nest

Factors Influencing Hatching Time

Influence of Environmental Conditions

The incubation period can be influenced by several environmental factors, including temperature and humidity. Ideal conditions for pigeon egg incubation include a stable temperature around 98.6°F (37°C) and humidity between 55% and 60%.

Extreme temperature fluctuations, whether too hot or too cold, can stress the parent pigeons and disrupt the incubation process. Similarly, high or low humidity levels can affect the eggs’ health, potentially extending the hatching time or even preventing the eggs from hatching.

Impact of Pigeon Breed

Different breeds of pigeons may have slight variations in their hatching times. For instance, while most pigeons hatch around the 18-day mark, certain breeds like the Short-faced Tumblers may take a day or two longer. The genetic traits of each pigeon breed can subtly influence the rate at which their embryos develop.

Role of Parent Pigeon Health

The health and well-being of the parent pigeons can directly affect the incubation period and the overall success of hatching. Healthy pigeons have the energy and resilience to provide consistent care to their eggs, maintaining the right temperature and protecting them from threats.

Conversely, pigeons with health issues may struggle with incubation. They might leave the nest too often or fail to provide the steady warmth that the eggs need, leading to longer hatching times or unsuccessful hatches.

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Hatching Process of Pigeon Eggs

Signs of a Nearing Hatch

As the hatch nears, there are signs to look for that indicate the imminent arrival of the chicks. Around the 17th day of incubation, the eggshell may start showing tiny cracks. This is a sign that the chick inside is getting ready to emerge.

You might also observe faint movements within the egg. This is the chick positioning itself for the breakout, a process known as ‘pipping’. Pipping is when the chick uses its egg tooth to make the first crack in the shell.

What Happens During the Hatch

The process of hatching is an intense, laborious effort for the tiny chick. Using a special, hard protrusion on its beak called an egg tooth, the chick begins to chip away at the shell from inside. This first hole is called a ‘pip hole’.

The chick will then rest for a while, gathering strength for the next stage of hatching. After this brief pause, the chick resumes its efforts, slowly enlarging the pip hole by breaking and chipping away at the shell. This process requires significant energy and determination from the chick, and it can take up to 48 hours for the chick to fully hatch.

During this time, you may notice the chick vocalizing or making soft peeping sounds from inside the egg. This communication helps the parents locate and provide encouragement to the hatching chick.

As the chick continues to chip away at the shell, it eventually creates a larger opening known as the ‘hatch window.’ Through this opening, the chick will push and wriggle its way out of the egg, using its legs and wings to assist in the process. The hatch window gradually enlarges until the chick can fully emerge.

Once the chick has successfully hatched, it may appear wet and exhausted. The parent pigeons play a vital role in caring for the newly hatched chick, providing warmth, protection, and nourishment. The parents regurgitate a special secretion called “crop milk” to feed the chicks, ensuring they receive the necessary nutrients for their early growth and development.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What to do if a pigeon egg doesn’t hatch?

In some cases, a pigeon egg may not hatch within the expected timeframe. If an egg fails to hatch after 21 days, it is likely non-viable. It’s important not to intervene immediately, as some eggs may have a delayed hatching process. However, if an egg shows no signs of hatching after 21 days, it’s best to consult an avian veterinarian for guidance.

How to tell if a pigeon egg is fertile?

Determining the fertility of a pigeon egg can be challenging without specialized equipment. However, after a few days of incubation, a fertile egg may show signs such as blood vessels visible through the shell when candled. Candling involves shining a light source against the egg in a dark room to observe its internal contents. Consulting a professional or experienced pigeon breeder can provide more accurate methods for determining egg fertility.

Can humans help pigeon eggs to hatch?

In general, it is best to allow nature to take its course and allow the parent pigeons to care for the eggs and hatching process. Interfering with the natural hatching process can disrupt the delicate balance and potentially harm the eggs or chicks. If you come across a situation where intervention may be necessary, it is crucial to seek advice from experts or professional avian veterinarians to ensure the best possible outcome for the pigeons and their eggs.


The journey from the laying of pigeon eggs to their eventual hatching is a remarkable process that showcases the wonders of avian reproduction. Understanding the incubation period, factors influencing hatching time, and the hatching process itself allows us to appreciate the resilience and dedication of pigeon parents in nurturing their young.

Through shared incubation responsibilities, male and female pigeons work together to ensure the optimal development and successful hatching of their eggs. Environmental conditions, pigeon breed characteristics, and the health of the parent pigeons all play a role in determining the hatching time.

As the chicks make their way into the world, the parents provide vital care and nourishment during their early days. Observing the signs of a nearing hatch and understanding the hatching process enriches our understanding of the incredible journey these birds undertake.

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